Objective: With this publication, the International Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (ISGE) aims to provide the clinicians with the recommendations arising from the best evidence currently available on hysteroscopic myomectomy (HM).
Study design: The ISGE Task Force for HM defined key clinical questions, which led the search of Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane Database. We selected and analyzed relevant English-language articles, published from January 2005 to June 2021, including original works, reviews and the guidelines previously published by the European Society for Gynecological Endoscopy (ESGE) and the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL), in which bibliographies were also checked in order to identify additional references, using the medical subject heading (MeSH) term ‘‘Uterine Myomectomy” (MeSH Unique ID: D063186) in combination with ‘‘Myoma” (MeSH Unique ID: D009214) and ‘‘Hysteroscopy” (MeSH Unique ID: D015907). We developed the recommendations through multiple cycles of literature analysis and expert discussion.
Results: The ISGE Task Force did develop 10 grade 1A-C and 4 grade 2A-C recommendations. For planning HM, evaluation of the uterus with saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) or combined assessment by transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and diagnostic hysteroscopy is recommended (Grade 1A). The use of STEPW (Size, Topography, Extension of the base, Penetration and lateral Wall position) classification system of submucosal leiomyoma (LM) is recommended to predict the complex surgeries, incomplete removal of the LM, long operative time, fluid overload and other major complications (grade 1B). For type 0 LMs, in addition to resectoscopy (slicing technique), morcellation is recommended, being faster and having a shorter learning curve with respect to resectoscopy (grade 1C). For type 1–2 LMs, slicing technique is currently recommended (grade 1C). A fluid deficit of 1000 mL also in case of bipolar myomectomy with saline solution, in healthy women of reproductive age, contains low risk for major complications. Lower thresholds (750 mL) for fluid deficit should be considered in the elderly and in women with cardiovascular, renal or other co-morbidities (Grade 1B).
Conclusion: HM is the most effective conservative minimally invasive gynecologic intervention for submucous LM. The set of 14 ISGE recommendations can significantly contribute to the success of HM and the safety of patients for whom the choice of appropriate surgical technique, as well as the surgeon’s awareness and measures to prevent complications are of the utmost importance.